Bladder Stones in Guinea Pigs


The Guinea Pig Vet on : Calcium phosphorous ratios and Bladder Stones in Guinea Pigs.

I’ve been requested many instances about medical and dietary administration of bladder stones in guinea pigs and particularly Calcium:Phosphorous ratios. I assumed I’d write this weblog to attempt to clarify extra of the element and observe up on earlier posts on my fb web page.

Sadly, bladder stones (urolithiasis) are quite common within the guinea pig. Stones in guinea pigs seem to universally be calcium containing salts; these can embody calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate or calcium carbonate. In my expertise calcium oxalate appears to be essentially the most prevalent.

Efforts have been made to scale back the incidence of bladder stones by dietary administration. In the intervening time there seems to be no food regimen that may dissolve bladder stones in guinea pigs (as could be the case for some stones in canine). Nonetheless, it might be doable to scale back incidence or reoccurrence charges by decreasing dietary calcium, extra particularly being attentive to the Calcium:Phosphorous (Ca:P) ratio of meals.

Calcium is present in three compartments within the physique, the blood and extracellular fluid (ECF), inside cells, and in enamel and bones. Calcium performs a task in lots of essential processes within the physique together with muscle contractions, nerve impulses and blood clotting. In consequence, the degrees of calcium within the physique are below tight management and shouldn’t be restricted utterly. Extreme restriction could cause issues with these processes or the event of weak enamel and bones. The hormones which might be concerned in calcium homeostasis embody parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcitonin and Vitamin D.

PTH is produced by the parathyroid glands, ranges of PTH enhance within the physique in response to excessive phosphorous or low calcium ranges within the blood. PTH acts on the skeleton to trigger the discharge of Calcium, the kidneys to extend calcium reabsorption from the urine (and enhance Vitamin D manufacturing), and the intestines to extend Calcium absorption from meals. This has the impact of accelerating blood calcium ranges.

Calcitonin is produced within the thyroid glands; it opposes the motion of PTH. Due to this fact, ranges of calcitonin enhance with excessive ranges of calcium within the blood. Its actions cut back blood calcium. It inhibits osteoclasts (decreasing calcium launch from bones) and reduces calcium reabsorption by the kidneys (subsequently rising urinary calcium).

Vitamin D performs a task in regulating calcium absorption from the intestines, in addition to urinary calcium excretion and bone metabolism.

The absorption, metabolism and excretion of Calcium and Phosphorous are intimately associated; with different components reminiscent of potassium and magnesium additionally taking part in a task.

The take residence message is that there isn’t a easy reply. It isn’t the case that in the event you feed lower than ‘X’ grams of calcium per day bladder stones are much less seemingly. It’s true that Ca:P is extra essential, it’s usually thought {that a} ratio of 1.5:1 (Ca:P) or much less is helpful. (Veg that fulfils this standards could be discovered on the guinealynx web site).

If bladder stones are Calcium Oxalate then decreasing dietary oxalate sources may also profit. Oxalate content material is excessive in issues reminiscent of spinach, parsley, celery and strawberries. Vitamin C can contribute to urinary oxalate ranges. Vitamin C is essential within the food regimen of guinea pigs as they can’t produce their very own nevertheless excessive ranges must be prevented in guinea pigs susceptible to calcium oxalate stones.

Different elements can contribute to stone formation for instance infections, irritation and bleeding within the bladder, very concentrated urine, and stress. So, consideration must also be paid into addressing these points.

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